اکوسیستم حوضه آبخیز مونو : اثرات کاهش سطح آب دریاچه
The Mono Basin Ecosystem: Effects of Changing Lake Level
The Mono Basin National Forest Scenic Area lies in eastern Californiaabout 300 mi north of Los Angeles and 190mi east of San Francisco. The basinis walled in by the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada to the west and by Great Basin ranges to the north, south, and east. Consequently, no waternaturally flows out of the basin. The only loss of water occurs throughevaporation and, since 1941, diversions of fresh water by the city of LosAngeles.
The Mono Basin is the hydrologic drainage basin for Mono Lake. As aresult of millennia of evaporation from its surface, the lake (at 500,000 yearsone of the oldest in North America) has gradually increased in salinity, and it isnow about 2.5 times as saline as the Pacific Ocean. The salinityand theparticular chemistry of the dissolved ionshas a large effect on the biota of thelake and the ecology of the basin. The unusual chemistry of the lake is also responsible for one of its distinctive scenic attractions, the tufa towers.