Iran Urmia Lake, the world second largest hyper saline lake, has been largely desiccated over the last two decades resulting in socio-environmental consequences similar or even larger than the Aral Sea disaster.
This paper presents the results of an assessment about interaction between Urmia Lake (UL) and coastal groundwater in the Urmia aquifer (UA). This aquifer is the most significant contributor to the freshwater supply of the coastal areas. The use of hydro chemical facies can be very useful to identify the saltwater encroachment or freshening phases in the coastal aquifers.
Plants most suitable for growing under high saline or even seawater conditions are the ones naturally living under high saline circumstances. Clear examples of valuable crops to be grown under saline circumstances or in combination with aquaculture are given by Brown et al. (1999)1 and Kempenaer et al. (2007)2. Next to this group, a series of tolerant or moderate salt tolerant plants are experimentally tested and described in literature. For many species of this group a threshold value has also been described.
This document provides background on potato production systems, starting with a scoping of global production systems and tries to identify key issues for policy and research. It is meant as a starting point for discussion and collaboration on GRA relevant topics. The outcome of this process will be used to create regional or global networks on the identified topics.
The use of GRACE gravity data makes it possible to determine continental water storage changes and to assess the water budget on monthly to multi-annual time scales. We use satellite altimetry data from ENVISAT and CryoSat-2 to monitor the lake water level.
The present research phases included: (1) determining the effective internal and external factors along with formulating strategic alternatives for reviving the lake’s water resources via strength–weakness–opportunity– threat (SWOT–TOWS) matrix; (2) prioritizing the alternatives according to sustainable development criteria via extended fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) technique, and (3) applying sensitivity analysis to monitor the robustness of the ranking.
Salinity gradient has globally high potential for electric energy production, especially where low salinity rivers discharge into hyper-saline lakes. Based on thermodynamic calculations and on field data, the theoretical potential of energy production at the above system has been calculated between 400 and 1000 MW, while the technical potential is expected between 40 and 50% of that. Two processes for the production of electricity from salinity gradients were investigated: PRO and RED.